What environmental report ?
Oil consumption has a significant impact on the environment: the use of each kilogram of oil results in the emission of about 3.1kg of CO2 in the atmosphere. The gradual increase of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in the atmosphere has been linked to global warming and ocean acidification. Developed countries have mobilized to promote the development of alternative solutions, such as plastic recycling systems or the development of biofuels.
The European Renewable Energy Directive (known ENR) and provides for the obligation for Member States to reach by 2020 10 % renewable fuel incorporation, a portion to be after the second-generation biomass (straw, shavings wood…). The production and use of biological hydrocarbons will reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.
Indeed, while the fossil hydrocarbons follow a linear trajectory industrial , basement (as oil) to the atmosphere (as CO2) through refineries and users, the product hydrocarbons biologically should be seen as a ring: CO2 is captured by the plants, which are converted fuels or materials by fermentation, which are consumed by users, which releases CO2 to be set again by plants.
If this cycle was perfect, the greenhouse gas savings would be 100%. In fact , the cycle is imperfect (need fuel for tractors, fertilizers, etc.), and the economies of greenhouse gas achieved relative to the use of oil is between 50 and 80 % depending on the plant resource and the process used. The best savings by greenhouse gases today are produced from sugar cane in Brazil. Global Bioenergies estimates that the savings in greenhouse gas emissions associated with its processes are greater than those observed in the bioethanol industry, because of the absence of necessity of distilled products.
These values must be confirmed and refined on the basis of results obtained in industrial pilot demonstrator and then full-sized plant.
The process will produce isobutene from various resources:
- cane sugar or beet sugar. The European sugar market is governed by the quota system since the 1960s it is preparing for a revolution with the abandonment of this system, which will take effect in 2017. Already, the main actors Sugar announced their intention increase their production. At European level and globally, the price of sugar has been falling since 2013.
- starch, the world’s leading agricultural product. Starch is the main component of corn, wheat and other cereals , cassava, potatoes…
- raw materials so-called “second generation”, from agricultural and forestry waste. It involves extracting sugars trapped in the non-food plant parts. The first plants implementing methods for doing this were opened in recent years. Global Bioenergies has established collaborations with 9 companies focused on this activity.
The household and industrial waste could also be used: Global Bioenergies established in 2011 a partnership with the American company Lanzatech, which develops gas fermentation processes from household or industrial waste. The production of isobutene from these raw materials will help to avoid the use of valuable resources otherwise.
The XXI century will gradually move agriculture for energy purposes alongside the current agriculture in food distribution. Industrial biology thus represents a major development opportunity for the many countries where the agricultural potential is important. These include France and the United States, or certain countries of tropical Africa, where the introduction of this new agriculture could be a significant development vector.